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Illinois ADVANCE

format_quoteA partnership between the Illinois Department of Healthcare and Family Services and the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy to provide Academic Detailing and Drug Information to Medicaid prescribers in Illinois.format_quote

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On March 11, 2020 the World Health Organization declared the global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), or COVID-19, a pandemic, making this novel coronavirus the third pandemic of the twenty-first century.1 Two days later, on March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency to contain the spread of this potentially life-threatening virus. An estimated two million cases have been confirmed worldwide, with over one hundred thousand deaths. COVID-19 is a positive, single-stranded RNA virus that can ultima…
Opioid withdrawal syndrome encompasses the signs and symptoms that occur as a result of a rapid decrease or cessation of opioids after prolonged use. For short-acting opioids, opioid withdrawal symptoms present within approximately 12 hours of last dose and continue for about 3-5 days. For long-acting opioids, withdrawal symptoms occur within approximately 30 hours of last dose and continue for up to 10 days. While opioid withdrawal syndrome is rarely life threatening, it may lead to relapse if not managed properly.
Every day, more than 130 people in the United States die after overdosing on opioids.1 In response to the growing opioid crisis, Illinois has focused its efforts on promoting the appropriate use and increasing the availability of overdose-reversing drugs, such as naloxone, for individuals with opioid addiction and their families, with the goal of reducing opioid overdose deaths.
When treating pain in children in the era of the opioid epidemic, judicious pain management is required in order to alleviate pain while minimizing adverse events, opioid dependence, opioid misuse, and addiction.1-4 Neonates with prenatal opioid exposure may present with opioid withdrawal and developmental issues.5 In addition to the fact that children’s bodies are still developing, genetic and phenotypic variability are factors that do not make all opioids therapeutically viable options for pain management in children.6-9 Pain management also varies de…
In 2016, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published a guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain in an effort to ensure prescribers and patients consider all safe and effective treatment options and minimize risks. Limited evidence is available to support the use of long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain and this topic is highly controversial, however, there is significant evidence regarding risks associated with long-term use including opioid use disorder and overdose.
Opioids are potent analgesics prescribed for acute and chronic pain. They exert their pharmacological effects by binding to the opioid receptors (delta, kappa, mu) found throughout the central nervous system (CNS), primarily the mu receptors. Opioid overdose, in which an excessive amount of a dose is given, can cause opioid toxicity leading to CNS depression and reduction in the respiratory drive. This can be life-threatening and fatal. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that 165,000 people died of an opioid overdose in the Un…